The introduction of the dissertation gives the elaborative view of background research on the selected topic; it also provides the rationale to justify the selection of the topic and to highlight the need to study the subject. The introduction also contains the aims and objectives of the research will give the purpose of the dissertation. The introduction contains a detailed overview of the structure of the dissertation and its significance of the dissertation.
The Ukrainian crisis, other major conflicts and the Russian annexation of Crimea have triggered the cold war and other dimensions sin Russia and NATO relations. In the post-cold war era, the relation between Russia and NATO got deteriorated, which raised questions about the factors that provoked the deterioration. It is claimed and observed that major geographical, political, historical, and cultural, and identity factors have led to the coldness and tension between Russia and NATO. Russia and NATO have a long and complicated relationship that escalated to new levels in the current era. To analyze and understand Russia and NATO’s currently happening and situation, it is very important to understand what has happened in the past. The creation and evolution of NATO have always been conditioned and questioned by the existence of Russia, or in other words, the creation of NATO is always conditioned by USSR.
Russia is the largest country that spans from Eastern Europe to northern Asia, and it is also known as the Russian federation. It is known to be the largest country globally, which covers an area of 17 million squares; it also encompasses or occupies the one/eighth per cent of the earth’s total inhabitable land. Russia includes sixteen sovereign states and goes across 11 time zones. Russia is the largest Slavic and European nation. Russia has a huge geopolitical history which has resulted in the evolution of Russia. In the eighteenth century, Russia was known to be the third-largest empire in the world. It was then called the Russian empire, which became great and huge due to Russia’s conquest, continuous expansions, and annexations. Due to the Russian revolt, the Russian empire dissolved, and the Russian SFSR became the prominent constituent of the Soviet Union that created the Soviet Union (Tsetsura, 2003). A whole historical account of the Soviet Union is provided in the third chapter of the dissertation. The incidents of World War 2 established Soviet Union as a superpower of the world and a possible rival and threat to the United States (US). The era of the Soviet Union is considered to be tremendous and beneficial for the Russian empire or Russian federation. In this era, many technological achievements were infolded in which the invention of the first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human into space was remarkable. In 1991, amidst several conflicts and divergences, the Soviet Union was dissolved. After which, the Russian SFSR established itself as a Russian federation (Tsetsura, 2003).
After the fall of the Soviet Union and the 1993 crisis, Russia has adopted a new constitution and is now following the federal semi-presidential republic system. Vladimir Putin is dominating the governmental and political systems of the Russian Federation and is known to be implying the authoritarian system, which has become the reason for several human rights cases of abuse and fundamental rights negligence. Russia is considered the potential superpower. It is a huge country with sovereign states and their collaboration. It is ranked 52 in the human development index and has free university education for its citizens. The economy of Russia is considered to be the eleventh largest in accordance with the nominal GDP (Gross domestic product) and the sixth-largest by PPP (Purchasing power parity). Due to its high development in nuclear technology, Russia is internationally identified as a nuclear-weapon state. It processes the world’s largest stocks of nuclear weapons. Apart from the production, the country is also known to be having the second most powerful military in the world with the fourth highest military expenditure, which is expectable given the size of the country and its technological advancements (Tsetsura, 2003). Russia is also a leading producer or trader of oil and natural gas. It is in permanent collaboration with United Nations Security Council (UN). Russian Federation or Russia is also have been a member of G20, SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization), and the council of Europe, the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation), the OSCE (Organization for security) and Cooperation in Europe, the IIB (International investment bank) and WTO (World Trade organisation). Apart from these, Russia is also have been a leading member of the CIS (Commonwealth of independent states), the EAEU (Eurasian Economic Union), and the CSTO (Collective security treaty organisation). Russia is collaborating with several global cooperation programs and initiatives to prosper and mark its identity to the world.
The fall of the Soviet Union led Russia in deep dejection and void. It established political and economic depressions. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the major crisis of the 1993 constitution, Russia was led by Vladimir Putin in 1999. Vladimir got the charge of the country and suppressed the Chechen insurgency as a result. The oil prices elevated, foreign investment increased, which eventually prospered the economy of Russia. Putin dramatically enhanced the quality and standard of life in Russia and marked the identity in global politics. Since 1999, in every four-year presidential election, Putin has won the presidential seat. In 200, Putin was elected as prime minister due to the country policy to halt the same person to become president for the third time in a row. ButPutin was back in the presidency in the 2012 elections.
The constitution of Russia outs the country in an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic. According to the country’s constitution, the president is the head of state, and the prime minister is the head of government (Tsetsura, 2003). Russia has a multi-party representative democracy whose system comprises three branches or aspects: legislative department, executive department, and judiciary department. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia has been busy balancing foreign relations. It is known to be having the fifth largest diplomatic network in the world. Russia has been marinating diplomatic relations with over 190 United Nations (UN) states and neighbouring Belarus. Serbia also serves as the most influential and historical ally of Russia. The overall geopolitical overview of Russia provides a glimpse of the importance of the Soviet Union and its fall in the binding of Russia and NATO relations.
NATO stands for “North Atlantic Treaty organisation”, which was established in 1949. NATO is an intergovernmental military alliance and is also termed the North Atlantic alliance between 28 European countries and two North American countries. NATO (or OTAN) aims to provide freedom and security to its member countries through political or military means. NATO promotes political democratic values among its members; it enables its members to cooperate in security-related issues and prevent conflicts (Forster & Wallace, 2001). NATO also aids its member through military means; it aims to provide a peaceful resolution to the conflict through diplomacy. Upon the failure of diplomatic resolutions, NATO provides military crisis management operations which are consulted under the collective defence clauses of NATO’s policies and founding treaty. NATO ensures the military command structures coordinate and cooperate in conducting the operation in the needy states to provide them security, freedom, and stability. The day to day activates and operations of NATO are funded and regulated by civil security investments programmers. It is funded through a common budget to which member governments contribute in accordance with and greed cost-sharing formula. This makes every member equally important and gives equal values to all the members. As established in 1949, NATO was largely dominant until the Korean War, which provoked the creation of the organisation or alliance. The military structure and alliance included forming “Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe” (SHAPE) in the year 1951. This structure was also adopted by the western union’s military structures and planes, including SATANG and SOFAs. The first major NATO mission and exercise was occurred in 1952, along with the accession of Greece and turkey to the organisation (Forster & Wallace, 2001). Since then, several countries started joining NATO-like Germany joined the alliance in 1955.
Russia is not a part of NATO, but in 2002 a joint venture or council was established between the two to counter security threats and propose peaceful diplomatic relations. NATO suspended its cooperation and collaboration with the Russian federation due to the Ukrainian conflict and invasion of Russia in Ukraine (Smith, 2008). The background and history of NATO are connected and intertwined with Russia due to the fact that NATO was established orb created to counter the Soviet threat to Europe. The powerful Soviet Union was a constant threat to many countries of Europe. As a counter result, NATO was established to ensure political stability and security in the region. NATO does not integrate istle in the post-ideological conflict situation. The organisation has become a hard power and is globally identified for providing or ensuring political and military aid (Smith, 2008). The Russian federation conditions the establishment and evolution of NATO. The state wants its status as a superpower globally as it was previously identified as the potential superpower during the Soviet era. It is important to study the NATO and Russian intertwined history to understand the current situation of Russia, Ukraine, and NATO. The dissertation will start with analysing the foundation of NATO, alluding to its cooperation’s and conflict with Russia over other states like Ukraine, Germany etc.
Post colonialism theory
In international relations, post colonialism refers to the analysis of people, society and governments in colonized regions. This theory highlighted the impacts or influences the colonial or imperial histories have on the culture and behaviour of the western world today. The theory analyses the western world in the light of their history (Seth, 2013). The theory focuses on the distribution and disparity of global power in the countries; it is concerned with the global fact that some countries practice power more than others. Global power and wealth accumulation are unevenly distributed globally, which makes some countries superior to others in terms of power and wealth or development.
Postcolonialism in international relations is the most pressing subject. This theory gives the researchers a direction or edge of reference to comprehend the distinct behaviours of different countries under the study. The theory relates the studies and the behaviours to colonialism, realism and liberalism. Postcolonialism theory implies that the power and wealth in the world are distributed unevenly. Moreover, the past identity of a country always impacts its behaviours. The theory studies every aspect through the reference of the post-European era. The theory relates the requirement and the situation of the world to primitive and old European values. Postcolonialism focuses on the different aspects of politics. It challenges the eurocentrism of international relations. The parochial accumulations that are utilized by the western countries or the western bloc about them being superior, or developed etc., post-colonialist believe that this idea has grown due to constructive thinking and the loss of post-European values. It sees the European values and countries to be successful and advanced like an old era. The current post-colonialist always refers to their past identities. The dissertation will focus on the postcolonialism theory because it is applied to the Russian federation. The post-soviet identity of Russia is still intact in its vision and core principles of the country. Russia is striving and making the west believe that it still has the power of dominance in it. The postcolonialism aspect challenges the parochial assumptions of eurocentrism, for example, pot colonial feminism, in which the relevance of gender and culture resolves problems.
Russia’s political and strategic situation and the prolonged history of the cold war with the neighboring countries make the subject quite important for the study purpose. In international relations, the situation of Russia and its study can help in the analysis and learning of many new aspects of the subject. By analyzing the subject, one can learn about the history of NATO and Russia. Knowledge about the Ukrainian conflict is also very important for international relations (IR) students or researchers. The study is very important in the light of the subject. It needs proper highlight, and the Post colonialism identity of Russia needs thorough analysis and illustration. This study can be beneficial for many purposes. The current relation of Russia with others, its foreign policy and the cooperation programs or initiatives with NATO are worth study and analyzing.
The aim of the research is essential as it provides the mission of the research. The current research aims to analyze the relation between Russia and NATO. The research aims to critically analyses and studies the evolution and history of NATO and Russia based on several conflicts and their determinants. The research also purposes to analyze and study the Post colonialism identity and the power of identity in the cold war between Russia and NATO. The research aimed to concisely shed light on the hot topic of Russia and its identity or security problems.
Research objectives are an essential part of research as they provide the purpose and benchmarks of the research. The objective helps the researcher’s o follow a particular direction to achieve the aim. The objectives are necessary for the achievement of aims. The objectives of the current research are
- To study the history of Russia and NATO.
- To analyze the fall of the Soviet Union and the evolution of NATO
- To highlight the list of conflicts between Russia and NATO
- To give a brief account of the power of identity
- To study the current relationship between Russia and NATO
- To predict their future.
The significance of the study highlights the importance of the study. The rationale has also highlighted the significance for the researchers, other than the study is also very significant for future researches. This research will address the history, present and future of NATO and Russia, which can be beneficial for future studies, it also provides a brief overview of pot colonialism theory, and the study is beneficial in this aspect. It will help the future researchers; the studies can become the base for future studies and help the researchers initiate their research and gather secondary data through it.
the current dissertation has a qualitative parch due to which it does not follow a standard 5-chapter dissertation structure. Instead, the dissertation has a precise and comprehensive chapter that elaborates and fulfils the research objectives. The dissertation contains seven chapters apart from the abstract, bibliography and appendix. The seven chapters are named as an introduction, methodology, the historical background of NATO and Russia, Russia Ukraine conflict, power of identity, the current overview of Russia and NATO, and conclusion.
The introduction is the first part of the dissertation. It provides information about the background research of the tropic; it will also procure the rationale of the sleeted subject along with the scope of the study. The introduction is very important to understand the context of the dissertation (Randolph, 2009). It will also provide the aims and objectives of the dissertation to highlight the idea of the dissertation.
In general dissertations, the methodology is the third part, but in current research, the methodology is provided with a second chapter to elaborate the data collection and analysis beforehand (De Groot, &Spiekerman, 2020). The introduction part contains a small glimpse of the literature review in the background research (Faryadi, 2019). The study is opted to be qualitative; therefore, the chapters further provide a dynamic and grounded review of secondary sources. The methodology section of the dissertation will provide research philosophies, research approaches and strategies. It will also highlight the reliability and n validity of the research.
3) historical background of NATO and Russia
The third section of the dissertation highlights the historical background of Russia and NATO. It will provide the details of conflicts and cooperation plans that were established between Russia and NATO. This chapter will enclose information about the factor which leads to the cold war and conflicts between NATO and Russia.
4) Russia Ukraine conflict
Russia and Ukraine conflict is the biggest conflict for Russia. The fourth chapter will contain information about the Ukrainian conflict in detail.
5) Russia Post colonialism identity
The fifth section of the dissertation provides detailed information about the Post colonialism theory and its aspect about the disparity of power and wealth in the countries. The chapter will also analyse the Russian approach to Post colonialism relations.
6) The foreign policy of russian federation towards west
The chapter contained details about the important facts about the foreign policy of Russia. It also contains detailed information about the changes Putin made in the foreign policy of Russia in years. It is a very important chapter to understand the Russian attitude and approach towards the west and its Post colonialism identity because Russia’s changes and hard work is only to gain its superpower identity back.
The conclusion is the last part of the dissertation. The good conclusion is summarised enough to provide a short view of the whole dissertation (Faryadi, 2019). The conclusion gathers all the important facts and information of the whole dissertation. The conclusion chapter will contain summarised text, future recommendations and limitations of the study.
Chapter 2 methodology
The methodology part of the dissertation defines the research strategy and approaches. It defines the research philosophy and research methods. It will also elaborate on the validity and reliability of the research to make this research significant for future researches.
Research methodology is an important part of the research process. It has different aspects which combine and shape the methodology. It starts with research philosophy (Bryman, 2012). The research philosophy is very important to define the approaches and methodology of the research; it works as a guideline for the researchers to procure the applicable methods for the research. The most effective method to define the research philosophy, methods and approaches is Saunders research onion. Saunder, Lewis and Thornhill presented it. The research onion illustrates the development of stages of research. It is an effective process through which an effective and dynamic research methodology can be derived. The layers of onion provide elaborative and comprehensive details about the different stages of the research methodology. The researchers implicated the Saunders model in defining and identifying the methodology’s effective and most suitable research steps. Saunder et al. (2012) elaborated that while utilising and studying the model, the individual must study from outside to inside, the outermost layer specifies the first step, and the innermost layer specifies the last step of the methodology. To achieve an effective outcome from the research methodology, the efficient use of the process is proposed (Goddard& Melville, 2004).
By utilising the elaborative approach towards the Saunder research onion model, the research philosophy is defined to be interpretivism. The philosophy of the research sets the stage for the other step of the methodology. It defines the idea of the research. Interpretivism philosophy is the one in which the researcher plays the role of observer (De Groot, &Spiekerman, 2020). In these types of research, researchers study the phenomenon or process and define the process through secondary means or evidence. The second layer of Saunder research onion specifies the research approach. It can be inductive or deductive. The interpretivism philosophy helps the researcher to identify the most suitable research approach. The interpretivism philosophy works best with the inductive approach. The deductive approach is more suitable to the quantitative studies that are meant to confer or experiment with the proposed hypothesis or theory (De Groot, &Spiekerman, 2020).
The inductive approach is more of a general observation type of research approach in which a researcher initiates the process with observation and aims to identify the patterns and details through tee data. This type of approach also supports the researches that require no particular framework related to the data collection. This type of approach can study numerous sources to collect the data about the specification of the subject (Bryman & Allen, 2011). The third layer of the research onion specifies the research strategies. The research strategy defines the intent of the researcher to carry the work; it defines the ways used by the researcher. There are different approaches to the research strategy. It can be experimental research, case study research, action research, survey-based research, grounded theory or systemic literature review. The grounded theory is more suitable for the inductive approach and qualitative research design. It is very common in social sciences and observational studies. The further layers define the methods, time horizon and data collection techniques. The time horizon can be defined as the time framework in which the research aims to be completed. The Saunder research onion has defined two types of time horizon that are longitudinal and cross-sectional. The cross-sectional type of research collect data at one point in a one-time frame, but in longitudinal studies, the data is collected through different time frames (Flick, 2011). The current research follows a longitudinal time horizon because the data about NATO and Russia is collected from different time frames to study their history, evolution, present and future.
The fourth layer of Saunder research onion defines the choices (methods), and the last layer specifies the data collection techniques. There are three types of research methods that are qualitative, quantitative, and mixed. In mixed both qualitative and quantitative methods are used. Quantitative methods are defined as the type of research study in which data is collected in numerical and statistical values (Flick, 2011). The quantitative method is used to generate statistical results for the research; it is more suitable to the deductive approach and experimental research strategy.
On the other hand, the qualitative method is the one in which data is provided in a comprehensive and textual manner. This type of method is used to gather elaborative data and give comprehensive results for the research. Qualitative research is essential for studying behavior and social sciences. It goes perfectly with interpretivism philosophy, the inductive approach. It also has numerous benefits. It is cost-effective, and it is a content generator, and it can help in the understanding of the behavior of the subject (Banister et al., 2011). No particular data type is required. It can be available in any data format. The research is based on secondary data, which will be collected through numerous authentic sources like websites or research papers. Secondary data is the pre-collected data extracted through different sources to back up evidence and literature for the topic. The inclusion criteria for the secondary data sources will be their authenticity and validity. The researcher has also taken care of ethical considerations related to the collection of secondary data. The research follows a descriptive design. Therefore, the research aims to provide comprehensive details about the subject follows a descriptive research design rather than explanatory or exploratory.
Secondary data in the research is gathered through non-probability sampling. Non-probability sampling can be defined as the type of judgment in which the researcher selects the sources or subsamples through his own judgment rather than random sampling. Non-probability sampling is very effective for qualitative secondary researches. The observer or researcher is responsible for selecting secondary sources and their authenticity (Feilzer, 2010). Non-probability sampling also contains its types that are convenience sampling, quota sampling, purposive sampling, self-selection sampling and snowball sampling. The research follows a self-selection sampling type because of secondary data. Non-probability sampling is considered to be fast and cost-effective from other types of samplings.
Validity and reliability are the two concepts aspects that highlight the quality and authenticity of the research. These concepts define the selection of techniques and measures the effectiveness of the methodology followed. Reliability represents the consistency of the research work, whereas validity represents the accuracy of the research. Reliability, in general, is defined as “the extent at which the provided results repeat” when the result derived in research are again and again tested and found to repeat (Drost, 2011). This confirms the reliability of the research. In the current research, the data is taken from reliable sources and is authentic and trustworthy. The data represented in the research is free from any bias and judgment of the observer.
On the other hand, validity is defined as the extent to which the measured values are accurate. In qualitative researches, validity represents the accuracy of the data. It measures that the given data is true or not (Drost, 2011). The researchers have keenly taken care of the reliability and validity of the research by selecting authentic, reliable, and accurate data sources.
Chapter 3 historical background of NATO and Russia
This section of the dissertation contains comprehensive information about the history of Russia and NATO. It will give information about the evolution of NATO. This section will also highlight the conflict and tension that fuel the cold war between Russia and NATO.
Russia emerged as a Soviet Union after the dissolution of the Russian empire and Romanov monarchy. The fall of the Russian empire was caused by the huge Russian revolution in 1917. The Soviet Union emerged as the first Marxist communist state, which was very powerful and consisted of 15 soviet republics; it was also named as USSR (United Socialist Soviet republic), which included “Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan”. Vladimir Lenin led The Soviet Union after the overthrowing of the government of the Russian empire. The Soviet Union was thriving prosperously until the death of Vladimir Lenin; Josef Stalin took control of the system. Stalin transformed the Soviet Union from an agrarian society to strong military power (Strayer, 2016). He implemented brutal policies which led to the death of his own citizens. Stalin introduced a five-year plan to incite the economic and developmental growth in the Soviet Union. The plan focused on improving and increasing the agricultural and industrial systems and enhancing military equipment and technology (Diesen, 2016). Stalin forced the collectivization of agricultural sectors; the local farmers were forced to join the collected units. The farmers or landowners were stripped of their property and livestock; even many high earner landowners were trapped and executed while their properties were confiscated. The reign of Stalin lasted 29 years till his death in 1953 (Strayer, 2016).
In the great famine of 1932-1933, millions of people died, but the officials denied the death for a long time. To hide the facts and evidence, the officials also kept the 1937 census results from a secret that was not available to anybody other than the officials (Strayer, 2016). The Ukrainian famine is termed Holodmore, which is a combination of Ukrainian words for starvation and inflicts death (Werth, 2008). According to the estimate, 3.9 million people lost their lives in the famine. During the Stalin reign, a period between 1936 to 1938 is termed as “A Great Purge”, in which it is estimated that 600,000 soviet citizens were executed and North millions were forced into labor camps known as Gulags (Strayer, 2016).
After World War 2 and the surrender of the Nazis, Soviet Union arranged a communist government with Eastern European countries whom the Soviet Union liberated from Nazi molestations in 1948. The American and British countries feared the spread of communist government in the countries and the amount of power it would give to the Soviet Union. So, in 1949, United States (US), Canada, and their European allies established or developed an alliance which was named NATO (North Atlantic treaty organization). The NATO alliance was the countermeasure of the western bloc and was the political representation of force against the USSR and its allies. The evolution of NATO stirred bad relations because of the need for power (Strayer, 2016). In 1955, the USSR consolidated the power in eastern bloc countries to counter the efforts of NATO. This act initiated the cold war between two bodies. The cold war was a struggle for power based on the political and economic problems of the eastern and western countries that were allies of two different alliance organizations.
In 1953 after the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev took hold of the Soviet Union. His era instigated many conflicts and propaganda between the Soviet Union and NATO. He provoked the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 when he launched the nuclear weapon very close to Cuba. Khrushchev reverted Stalin’s policies and repressive policies, layer his reign was termed as “destalinisation”. One of the greatest achievements of the Soviet Union was the launch of “Sputnik”. In 1957 USSR launched the first human-made artificial satellite in space (Erickson, 2018). This triggered fearing United States (US), and many feared that the US would fall back in the cold war rivalry in terms of technology. The technology rivalry was more spiced up with the USSR launching of soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in space (Erickson, 2018). He was the first-ever human to go into space. In the countermeasure of the technological rivalry, the US president John F Kennedy claimed that United States (US) would soon launch a man to the moon, which was made true on July 20 1969, when Neil Armstrong created the record to be the first person to walk on the moon (Erickson, 2018).
After Khrushchev, the political and governmental stability of the Soviet Union was crumbling. In the 1970 and 1980s, the communist parties started gaining wealth while the soviet citizens faced poverty and starvation. Until the 1980s, Soviet citizens were snatched from basic needs like food, cloth etc. the differences between the wealthy communist parties and the poor soviet citizens made the younger generation revolt against the communist system. During these difficult times, the Soviet Union also faced attacks from outside (Polikanov, 2004). United States (US) isolated the Soviet Union in the economy by declining the prices of oil, which hugely affected the economy of the Soviet Union and, as a results Soviet Union started losing its grip on Eastern Europe. By the end of 1989, the Poland revolution made USSR lose Eastern Europe. In 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the front line represented of Russian politics by the diminishing Gorbachev’s power in the USSR (Usitalo, & Whisenhunt, 2008). As a result, on December 31, 1991 Soviet Union was seized and was dissolved completely.
The collapse of Soviet Union was a disastrous collapse of the history, its dismissal gave birth to 15 independent republic states. before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the president of united states personally went to Ukraine to advice the countries to stop the dissolution of Soviet Union (“Was the Soviet Union’s Collapse Inevitable?”, 2021). according to the president on united states, “having one nuclear power alternative rather than more than a dozen independent nations is a complicated thing”, as a result during the last years of Soviet Union, American president did his best job stop the dissolution. At the time of dissolution, the Soviet Union has more than 5 million solders that were deployed internationally, it also has enough nuclear weapons that could have destroyed the entire human race, but the great Soviet Union dissolved due to its internal problems. The dissolution of Soviet Union made America a sole super power of the world. It is said that the fall of Soviet Union was the result of failed presidency of Leonid Brezhnev and Gorbachev (“Was the Soviet Union’s Collapse Inevitable?”, 2021). Their neglected actions resulted in the chaos within the Soviet Union and which resulted in the dissolution.
NATO was created as a counter alliance against the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was expanding and was conquering the eastern bloc through the Warsaw pact. The United States (US), Canada and their allies developed a north Atlantic treaty organization to counter the threat of the Soviet Union in the western bloc (Forster, & Wallace, 2001). The purpose of NATO is very clear from its mission statement that is
“To keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down.”
The United States served as the most important ally of NATO. In the continuous cold war, United States served many purposes for NATO. It can be said that the USSR was NATO’s chief enemy (Forster & Wallace, 2001). Both bodies are against each other and try to prevail their power in the western and eastern bloc. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Soviet Union became Russia or the Russian federation. And stable or reluctant relations started growing between two bodies. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia lost its hold on Eastern Europe and many other countries shifting its identity from being a potential superpower to a struggling republic (Polikanov, 2004). On the growth of relations between NATO and Russia, the Russian president Yeltsin also claimed that Russia would become a member of NATO one day. On the statement of Yeltsin, many of his parliament members protested (Polikanov, 2004). The Russian protests increased in 1993 when NATO expanded its branches and opened itself for new members and countries or allies. This expansion granted power to NATO, which was unacceptable for Russia. The post colonialism theory fits here because Russia is concerned about its history and the global power that it had before. Due to internal conflict, Russia was bound to accept the expansion of NATO, but it presented on condition that no nuclear weapon would be deployed on the territory of new member countries, which NATO accepted without any inconvenience (Smith, 2008). In 1994, another progression was made in Russia NATO relation when Russia joined “NATO’s partnership for peace programmed”.
In 1997 another participation was set with Russia over supporting harmony in the Euro Atlantic Area and new gathering – Permanent Joint Council was set to consistently examine safety inquiries by marking the Founding Act. This demonstration was vital for molding the future method of collaboration and shaping the places of both NATO and Russia. Russia realized that well overall, so it has avowed its ‘regard for power, freedom and regional trustworthiness, everything being equal, and their inborn right to pick the necessary resources to guarantee their own security (Polikanov, 2004). ‘. It additionally disavowed ‘effective reaches’. Regardless of the endeavors, arrangements were not going as flawlessly as the long Cold War stamped the two sides with bias and huge contrasts just as the absence of comprehension. NATO master James Sherr characterised the relations as nearly ill-fated to dissatisfaction as even though means were made, the two sides felt that the collaboration needed congruity (Usitalo, & Whisenhunt, 2008). As indicated by Sherr, NATO was in every case possibly too precautious towards Russia; subsequently, Russia needed uniformity which for them signifies “co-administration.” Nonetheless, Russia was an entirely significant partner during tackling the Kosovo struggle when Russian and NATO officers battled together to reestablish harmony just as in collaborating in Afghanistan (Smith, 2008).
The relation of NATO and Russia made another progression in 2002 when Russia joined NATO’s “partnership for peace programmed”. This program initiated good relations between two bodies based on the same interests. Russia received equality like all other 27 members. The progress increased the number of meetings and members of NATO, built Russia did not receive any security guarantee from the council. The council had many drawbacks, which provoked the differences between the two bodies. Apart from differences, they had many similar interests, which enabled them to work together on many issues. The general secretary claimed that NATO and Russia relationship have higher potential other than the relation of NATO with any other member country. The council faced difficultness with their differences.
One of the biggest differences arises in the issue of Iraq (Polikanov, 2004). The war in Iraq and US military intervention against Saddam Husain was unacceptable to Russia. Russia, along with France, Germany and their allies, strived to stop the US military intervention. Russia took aid from United Nations resolutions to stop the use of the military in Iraq (Forsberg & Herd, 2015). apart from these differences, the council focused on many similar interests, including Afghanistan, Iran, arms control, terrorism, piracy, narcotics, cyber security, North Korean missile defense programmed, economic cooperation, energy security, organized crimes, and many other manmade disasters. This interest made the cooperation of NATO and Russia, but the differences also provoked much crisis. The differences between NATO and Russia can be observed in the conflict of Kosovo and Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine. The differences between Russia and NATO over these mentioned conflicts aired to the level the NATO was bound to suspend all the cooperation’s with Russia. The most influential and beneficial cooperation of NATO and Russia was observed in Bosnia in 1995. It was assumed that the differences would break the ties, but both bodies acted responsibly. While the allies of NATO acted from the air through airstrikes, Russia sent in troops that took part in the implementation force (IFOR) (Polikanov, 2004). IFOR are the multinational peacekeeping forces in Bosnia.
Initially, NATO was established to aid and secure western countries from soviet threats, but after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and suspension of the cold war, NATO expanded its roots among the European countries. According to the principles of NATO, the member countries of NATO form a unique community that practice human rights, security, freedom and democracy. NATO strived to demolish communism from the world (“NATO’s New Order: The Alliance After the Cold War | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective”, 2021). The alliance of the country members of NATO is based on the principles and values or policies of the United Nations (UN). The enlargement and expansion of NATO have advanced and increased the stability in Europe. The expansion of NATO in Europe stirred some tension with the Russian federation. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia revised its foreign policy and showcased stable relations with other countries, but the conflict between NATO and Russia hindered the stability of tier relations. The expansion of NATO threatened Russia as the power of NATO can; lessen the influence of Russia in its region (“NATO’s New Order: The Alliance After the Cold War | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective”, 2021). The lesser influence and dominance on the region will be a major difficulty in acquiring post-soviet conditions for Russia.
During the time of establishment, NATO was comprised of its twelve founding members. In 1952 it included Greece and turkey. Later in 1955, the west germ part of NATO. Then after two decades, in 1982, Spain also became the part of north Atlantic treaty organization (NATO). One of the chief reasons for such fast expansion waste is the successful provision of security and military aid to member countries. NATO was successful in fulfilling its purpose; it also secured the countries from the threat of the Soviet Union. Since it was the establishment, it was involved in a cold war with the Soviet Union. After the fall of the Soviet Union, NATO continued its expansion in the east. In the year 1999, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic became part of NATO. This inclusion encountered aggressive Russian opposition. After that, many eastern and central European countries joined NATO, including Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. These central and eastern European nations were the initial nations interested in joining NATO during the 2002 Prague summit. The expansion of NATO continued, and in 2009, Albania and Croatia joined NATO. In 2017 Montenegro joined it, and, most recently, in 2021, north Macedonia joined NATO. Recently in the year 2021, NATO has officially identified its aspiring members that are to be Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia and Ukraine. The alliance with Ukraine has always been an up and down ride for both bodies because of Russian intervention. In 2014, Russia intervened and purposely annexed crime to pressurize Ukraine about joining NATO or European Union. NATO global expansion is unacceptable to Russia because it declines the changes of Russia to become a superpower again. After all, NATO is working against Russia. Any wrongdoing of Russia results in the Cold war between two bodies. It is observed and claimed that Russia and NATO have returned to the Cold War conditions exactly like it was in the Soviet era.
In the future, NATO also plans to increase its expansion and include the countries like Finland, Serbia, Sweden etc. the inclusion of countries of the eastern bloc that was part of the Soviet Union faced harsh reactions from Russia. Russia has achieved an assertive and aggressive approach in its foreign policy towards NATO. For the 21st century, NATO has published its vision or objective that is
“The political leaders of NATO are determined to continue the renewal of our Alliance so that it is fit for purpose in addressing the 21st Century security challenges. Our Alliance thrives as a source of hope because it is based on common values of individual liberty, democracy, human rights and the rule of law, and because our common essential and enduring purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members” (“Active Engagement, Modern Defence – Strategic Concept for the Defence and Security of the Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation adopted by Heads of State and Government in Lisbon”, 2021)
NATO and Russia were involved in differences over the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Russia was favoring it, but NATO was opposite to it. In the meeting, Russia tried to warn NATO about the use of force without authorization from United Nations (UN), but NATO paid no heed to their warning and ordered “limited air strikes” and “phased air campaign” in 1998. This demonstration caused Russia to feel precautious, and more doubter voices were raised. Russia, in the long run, suspended the binds with NATO. Despite the way that as indicated by the Founding Act, Russia must be counseled and had the right of blackball, albeit that right was regularly ensured just hypothetically as displayed during the committee gatherings where Russia was attempting to counter the mediation in Yugoslavia however was not fruitful (Usitalo, & Whisenhunt, 2008). Yeltsin ended up being correct that another conciliatory chess game was molding, and NATO began to overwhelm in many fields, yet the situation of Russia was not what he would expect. NATO itself continued sending this message to Russia even after the common conflict. After Poland joined NATO, the partners needed to move one of its base camps from Germany to Poland, which was something they expressly vowed to Russia not to do, and in the long run, they didn’t. In spite of this load of debates, Yeltsin realized that the organization is truly significant for his debilitated country. The conflict in Chechnya even deteriorated Russia’s awful circumstances. Thus, ultimately, they got back to NATO again and surprisingly began to participate. In 1999, Russia sent its soldiers to Kosovo to join the KFOR powers. Additionally, in the year 2000, another president was delegated in Russia, Vladimir Putin, who was viewed as much more supportive of NATO situated as Yeltsin (Usitalo, & Whisenhunt, 2008).
The war situation in Afghanistan and the incident of 9/11 turned the table for two bodies. After the incident of 9/11, the president of the United States (US) and president of Russia, George Bush and Vladimir Putin, met, and Russia supported the USA in its fight in Afghanistan. The main point of cooperation was that; Russia will allow the United States to operate in the influential Russian territory in Asian airspace, Russia will support the Afghan armed forces, and it will take care of the training of Afghan counter-narcotics forces, cooperation in closing the espionage centers in Cuba, the establishment of bigger naval bases in Vietnam. Putin accepted the chief point of the meeting and rendered his support to the USA (Forsberg & Herd, 2015). The president of Russia aimed to proper the relation of Russia with NATO and the USA to eliminate the threats of terrorism and economic instability. In the exchange of support, Russia will be benefited by categorizing the rebels in Chechnya, which was beneficial for Russia. Their elimination saved Russia from the terrorism threat.
In any case, another debate showed up once more, this time over the Georgia Conflict, also called the South Ossetia war, in 2008. Regardless of how the genuine “war” struggle endured around five days during August that year, the political results were more deadly and longer enduring. The contention started with Ossetia separatists, who began besieging Georgian towns. Georgia dispatched military hostile accordingly (Polikanov, 2004). The job that Russia played in this contention was sending armed force and air troops to help Ossetia. All sides, Russia, Georgia and South Ossetia, were blamed for war violations by the Human Rights Watch. Russia was faulted for attacking a sovereign state and compromising the majority rules system. This thought the relationship with NATO adversely. Accordingly, the Alliance suspended collaboration with Russia. As that occurred, the two sides began to blame each other for returning to the Cold War strategies and adding a few new irritating arrangements. Regardless of whether Russia interceded previously or after the assault isn’t clear. However, Russia’s means towards a sovereign state were sufficient to summon a few responses among the previous USSR states. Among them was Ukrainian president Yushchenko, who expressed that he needed to expand the lease for the Russian maritime base in Sevastopol in Crimea.
The cooperation and collaboration between the two countries started to flourish again in 2010 on the ballistic missile defence. The ballistic missile defence is an issue that is categorized as a game-changer for NATO and Russia relations (Polikanov, 2004). Russian political Dmitri Trenin said in an interview that “Every little cooperation is a small step towards the good relations but there is still the importance of the big breakthrough otherwise the risk of sliding back is very real”. Reviewing the 20- years of cooperation, he also claimed that Russia has to move on to have effective and influential relationships with NATO.
Chapter 4 Russia Ukraine conflict
This section of the dissertation illustrates the conflict can crisis of Ukraine comprehensively. The Ukrainian crisis plays a great role in shaping or destroying the NATO and Russia relationship, this section of the dissertation will explore the factors and aspects of NATO and Russia in the Ukraine conflict.
The Ukrainian crisis was initiated in late 2013 and is named euro maiden protest collectively. The euro maiden protests initiated and moved across the country, giving the movement of the eastern parts another chance to initiate their protests. Ukraine is the second-largest country in Europe after Russia. Ukraine shares its border with Russia, Belarus, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Moldova. The country also bears a coastline of the sea of Azoy and the black sea. It is a very large country and is expended in an area of about 603,628 kilometers square. It is also considered the eighth-most populated country in the world, with a population size of about 41.4 million.
Ukraine has been the victim of bad governance, corruption and a weak governmental system. The country is interlocked between Russian Federation and European Union. Ukraine has declared it a neutral state and has maintained balanced military collaboration with Russia and other CIS (Commonwealth of independent states) member countries. Ukraine also established a flourishing partnership with NATO in 1994.
In 2013, the president of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, aimed to cut off its ties with the European Union association agreement and make closer ties with Russia. The president of Ukraine was resistant to sign the trade agreement with the European Union, which would have opened the trade routes and area and imposed serious security issues. Yanukovych dealt with serious protests and economic instabilities, and unbearable energy dependency by Russian resources. As a result, the president rejected the European Union agreement under Russian pressure. He refrained from agreeing with the European Union to maintain good relations with Russia and also to obtain a decrease in the process of gas and energy resources (Smith, 2008). The rejection of the deal initiated a mass crisis in the country of Ukraine in which Russia supported the president of Ukraine o the other NATO, USA supported the protesters. The crisis sparked and turned into a major conflict between Russia and NATO. Since the sparkling of crisis, many major incidents have happened in Ukraine. Initially, Ukraine bearded the cold side of Russia while breaking off from the Soviet Union. Ukraine has always bearded with the problem of outside or external influence, especially Russia. The country has a little internal dependency. After breaking ties with the Soviet Union and joining NATO, the name of Ukraine lost its uniqueness from Russia. Promptly it was named “the Ukraine”, but now “the” has been diminished, and it is converted only into Ukraine. This partiality has become very important in the Ukrainian crisis. It made Ukraine see the Russian behavior and surge for power over other countries.
After the initiation of the crisis, in February, the president of Ukraine, Yanukovych, was thrown out of its presidency and powers by anti-governmental protesters. As a countermeasure, Russia strived to regain its influence on Crimea and annexed Crimea in March of 2014 (Bebier, 2015). The actions of Russia were in opposition to the NATO council alliance, which made NATO dissolve the NATO Russia council and cooperation (Smith, 2008). The measure of Russia and Ukraine military provoked rebels as results the protesters seized the territory in eastern Ukraine and also shot down the Malaysian airline flight on July 17. Malaysian flight incident caused the deaths of over 298 people. In further acts, the Russian army also seized some parts of Ukraine to show its power. The Russian invasion of Crimea is an illegal and most hostile invasion which as opposed by every other force. The socialists have put forward two theories to analyze the Russian invasion of Crimea.
Theory one suggests that the Russian president Vladimir Putin is trying to overturn rebels’ losses because he wants something from Ukraine. Putin has been backing the rebels for months and is initiating violence in eastern Ukraine. It is theorized that Putin is doing this to maintain a small crisis overall in Ukraine as he did in Georgia and Moldova and impose its power on the country. The influence ad invasion can help Russia in maintaining its dominance over Ukraine. NATO suggests that Putin is after some immediate strategic goals he is trying to achieve and will only stop when he achieves his power goal. The second theory suggests that Putin is forced into this invasion due to his rhetoric propaganda. It is suggested that Putin’s creating distress in the region to counter Russia’s economic problems; he is trying to mould the attention of the citizen and the protesting and nongovernmental parties of Russia.
These are the theories that some socialists propose to understand the Russian invasion and its annexation of Crimea. These all incidents brought Russia and the West to their lowest point in the cold war. Sanctions have been imposed on Russia to push its economy downward. As a result of protests and military action, more than 2500 Ukrainian have lost their lives. Ukraine has always been associated with Russian dominance, but the evolution has divided Ukraine into two sections (Bebier, 2015). One section sees Ukraine as a bigger part of the European Union and considers its prosperity with an alliance with European Union, but the other half of the divide, Ukraine, sees itself as a part of Russian dominance. They see themselves intrinsically connected to Russia. The crisis of Ukraine was enviable due to Russian influence and governmental dependency. The Russian president Putin is spreading the “imperial revival view” due to its post-colonial thinking; it portrays Ukraine as part of bigger Russia, just like initially it was the part of the Soviet Union and USSR. It is also portraying Ukraine as a victim of western influence and hostility. The Ukrainian conflict is seemingly behaving to no end right now due to over influence.
The Ukrainian conflict has become a major stone in NATO and Russian relations; it has imposed many internal and external effects. Internally it has shattered the economy and system of Ukraine. According to statistics provided by World Bank, the crisis made the economy of Ukraine fall by 8% (Schünemann, 2020). Due to the extreme influence and interference of Russia and its suspension from NATO, many sanctions have been placed on Russia, which is resulting in imposing numerous serious effects on Russia, it is making the Russian rouble drop and is generating Russian financial crisis (Schünemann, 2020). The war situation created in Donbas has also caused a coal shortage in Ukraine (Polikanov, 2004). The region of Donbas is the chief producer of coal and has the largest coal mines in the whole of Ukraine. The war situation and military actions in the area have declined the coal industry.
Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station was also forcibly close down after accidents happened in one of its reactors. The impact of annexation has created a rolling blackout in the Donbas region because of the coal mining crisis. Due to the Ukrainian crisis, much ongoing construction and collaboration projects have been disturbed. The construction of the pipeline in turkey has been disturbed; the project has an annual estimation of carrying about 63 billion cubic meters of natural gas. This pipeline collaborates between turkey and Europe, which has to pass Ukraine between its routes (Bluszcz, & Valente, 2019). Ukraine is a country that has been facing corruption and a weak governmental system since its inception or birth. It is difficult for the country to get over such a drastic crisis in a short period. It will take a long time for Ukraine to get back on track and function properly. The BBC report claimed that Ukraine is amidst a crisis and is fighting on low-level to overcome the losses. It is also claimed that a third maiden will be launched to fight the effects of the crisis. The IMF (International monetary fund) has passed a four-year loan plan for Ukraine worth 17.5 billion US dollars in eight tranches for economic reforms (Bluszcz, &Valente, 2019). Despite the loan sanction and reforms, Ukraine showed little improvement. As a result, only two tranches were passed worth 6.7 billion US dollars in the year 2015. It is believed that the third trench had been sanctioned in 2016 with 1.7 billion US dollars. In May 2016, the “IMF mission chief” for Ukraine stated that they observed international support by reducing corruption.
Chapter 5 Russia and post colonialism identity
The fifth chapter of the dissertation highlights the post-colonialism literature and theory implications to the identity of Russia. The chapter comprehensively defines post colonialism theory and Russian ideology.
The post colonialism identity is related to the past identity of the country, people or society. It is defined as the theory which is moiré concerned with the illustrations and analysis of political, historical, economic, and social impacts of European colonial rules. The post-colonial theory is comprehended through different aspects and interventions bit all the interventions and aspects have a similar fundamental concept. The theory suggests that “the world that w have inhabited is impossible to comprehend without analyzing and studying history in imperialism and colonial era” (“Russian Identity, Nationalism, Colonialism and Post colonialism”, 2021). The theory also claims that it is impossible to study European history, European cultural and European literature without the impact of European colonial-era rulings and encounters. In the study, neither of European history nor to be more precise in the study of Russian history colonial era has a great role. Russia associates itself with the golden colonial era of the Soviet Union (Pavlyshyn, 1993). One intervention of theory suggests that the colonized society has forgotten the centre of global modernity. The world post in the post-colonial theory implies that colonialism has ended, but many scholars and socialists or researchers imply that colonialism has never ended. Instead, the post-colonial theory is connected or concerned with the modern colonial authorities and forms.
Morozov has defined the post colonialism and Russian approach toward sit in his book very precisely. He argues that Russia was colonized during the soviet era. While being a sovereign state in the Soviet era, Russia has been instrumented to colonization. Morozov suggests that Russia has been colonized to achieve global interest while it was highly integrated into European international society (“Russian Identity, Nationalism, Colonialism and Post colonialism”, 2021). During the Soviet Union, Russia was the largest country of the USSR. Russia views the worked through a Eurocentric mirror, and it is highly dependent on the west countries in its economic and developmental reforms. The country accuses the west of the neocolonialism approach. Moscow conducts the foreign policy of Russia and blames all the injustices on the international order and claims that injustices have been imitated due to neocolonialism approaches of the west. Russian president Putin continuously strives to engage in imperial pursuits in their presidency; he explicitly relies on the legacy of the soviet to spread its influence and secure its territories. The contemporary identity of Russia relied on its post-imperial identity that is to be a superpower (Carey, &Raciborski, 2004). The Russian defines their identity based on their soviet past. Russia is still stuck in the past and relates its identity to its soviet era. Kremlin promoted a “multipolar” world and also initiated many repressive domestic policies. He proposed to democratize the internal order and system. The oppressive authoritarian official of Russia reinforces imperialism in its order. The case that Russia is significantly Eurocentric stroked spectators as illogical. Morozov convincingly shows that “the conventional Russia which ‘paleoconservatives’ Endeavour to recuperate from underneath the liberal bends is close to a perfect representation of the West as it is seen through the viewpoint of Russian sound judgment”. The anatomization of the ‘bogus’ Europe (experiencing ‘post-Christian’ patterns like homosexuality or agnosticism) converts into a development of a ‘genuine’ Europe focused on Russia (Carey, &Raciborski, 2004).
Eurocentric refers to the viewing of history or cultures of non-western societies through European perspectives. Russia sees the world through Eurocentric opinion. It has internalized the Eurocentric perspective, and it is itself not different from the other European countries. Russia is a part of European countries, but the post-colonial identity of Russia is hindering the path of Russia to accept this. Russia views itself as a potential superpower and thus wants to practice the powers associated with the world’s big powers. The differences in the European countries are determined by global capitalism. Russia is integrated as a semi-peripheral nation. It depends on the west for its economic and normative aspects. The state has colonized but is still unable to achieve economic independence. Morozov claims that “The peculiar dialectic of the subaltern and the imperial during the post-Soviet period has given rise to a regime which claims to defend ‘genuine Russian values’; while in fact there is nothing behind this new traditionalism but the negation of Western hegemony”. Russian politics is only subjected to the West. The Eurocentric authorities and officials silenced the citizens or other parties, making it hard for people to protest or raise their voices (Chernetsky, 2003). The evolution and modernity of Russia have an empty spot in the traditionalist discourse that has a huge difference from the Russian subaltern reality; the aspect follows pre liberal European values. Russia has achieved so-called modernity, but in reality, it is still chasing its past identity and values. This diplomacy in the country’s core values points towards the difficult relations of the West and Russia. Many socialist claims that “Russia’s pro-Western excitement of 1991 was superseded by a more ambiguous attitude, which remained a consistent feature of Russia’s relations with Western-dominated international institutions and of Russia’s identity in the final analysis” (“Russian Identity, Nationalism, Colonialism and Post colonialism”, 2021). After years of the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia views remained Eurocentric about the world. Russia aims to maintain and regulate the west countries like Poland, the Baltic, and Ukraine etc. This is one of the main reasons Russia desires to maintain post-soviet space and its dominance over other countries. It has applied an imperial legacy that enables Russia to intervene in their countries like Georgia to protect.
Russia is utilizing western tools to frame its identity in the world (Chernetsky, 2003). The utilization of western tools and the following of western means indicate Russia’s normative dependency on the west. All the discussion about Russian attitude and approaches highlights the impact of post colonialism. West implies Russia as its great geographical enemy. Despite all the facts, it is to be argued that Russian attitude towards the west is not enmity or grudge. Russia possesses no anti-west feelings. Instead, it only aims to gains its power in the region, just like colonial times. All the attempts of Russia are in the approach to gain its colonial identity back.
The chapter contained details about the important facts about the foreign policy of Russia. It also contains detailed information about the changes Putin made in the foreign policy of Russia in years. It is a very important chapter to understand the Russian attitude and approach towards the west and its post colonialism identity because Russia’s changes and hard work is only to gain its superpower identity back.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian federation merged entirely as a new country, although its modernized core values are empty because it still follows its old pre-liberal European values. After the emergence of the Russian federation, it changed its foreign policy (“Russian Foreign Policy | Russian Mission”, 2021). The foreign policy of the Russian Federation is based on the creation and maintenance of table and sustainable relations with international countries based on international law. The foreign policy of the Russian federation follows the principle of equity, mutual respect and non-interference in the current affairs of the country. The foreign policy of the Russian federation enabled it to maintain stable relations with NATO for a smaller portion of time. The differences between the two bodies suspended the council and cooperation program between them. Since the presidency of Vladimir Putin, the foreign policy of Russia is changing to a great extent. One of the main reasons for altering the policy is to maintain and protect his own presidency and regime (“Russian Foreign Policy | Russian Mission”, 2021). The desire of the United States to promote democracy in the post-soviet regions is considered a direct threat to the Russian regime and its survival. The United States has publicly declared its desires and is pressuring Russia to spread democracy. Apart from this act, there are several other acts and measures which threatened the Putin regime. Russia is not accepting the soviet identity and is still standing on its past identity. This is why the United States interventions are not acceptable to Russia, and Putin is trying their best to eliminate the threats of democracy to his regime to continue the core European values and colonized system. The bush administration in the United States has taken several measures to create diplomatic relations with the European countries, which affected Putin. United States put its efforts to admit Georgia and Ukraine in NATO. It also announced the deployment of a missile defense system in Poland and the Czech Republic. It has also inhibited supported Georgia before and after its conflict with Russia (Kuchins&Zevelev, 2012, p.156). All these acts and relations of the United States with European countries acted as external shocks to Russia. This external shock enabled Putin to convert the foreign policy of Russia from “power activist” to more “aggressive and assertive”.
Putin has imposed numerous changes on the foreign policy of Russia since its presidency in 1999. In initial times, the changes were programmed and were non-aggressive, but after the Putin presidency of 2012, major changes became part of Russian foreign policy. Putin’s chosen course of foreign policy for Russia is defined as entirely different from his initial presidency approaches. Intellectuals, citizens and the neighboring countries observed Putin’s stances and following of a nationalist, neo-revisionist and neo-Eurasian course in foreign policy. The chased stance represents the “international reorientation” according to the Yeltsin selected foreign policy courses, but it is highly different from the Primakov stances (“Russian Foreign Policy | Russian Mission”, 2021). By comparing the foreign policy of the first two presidencies of Putin and the third timed approach, the policy cannot be regarded as “international reorientation” because it is entirely different with different objectives and visions. During his reign in the 2012 presidency, Putin was unsettled with the western behaviors for expanding NATO in the European and international arena. Marcel De Haas (2010) has claimed that Putin has also followed an assertive stance during his second presidency tenure; he claims that Putin has an assertive approach towards the west and other countries. Marcel de has (2010) also argues that the core belief behind the assertive foreign policy approach was the past identity of Russia as a potential superpower. The oil surge aided Russia in gaining economic benefits and striving towards achieving its status. This was achieved when Russia gained economic significance, and the west suffered a crisis. Kremlin and Putin gained their confidence back and started acting and striving likes a great power. Putin most important aim is to be making the west realize the real power of Russia. Thus, it cannot ever again ignore Russia and take it for granted in the international arena. It is to be observed that apart from government, the people of Russia and the intellectual also did not ever saw Russia as less than a regional power. In the 1990s, Russia accepted NATO’s expansion in Eastern Europe just because of its weak position at that time. It is claimed that Russia also joined NATO only to prosper and maintain its economic conditions; moreover, it has nothing to do with NATO’s rules and western order. Russia can never accept the western order of the world. The whole scenario piled up the Russian resentment towards the west, 2012 Putin started taking advantage of the west’s weakening conditions, Russia evolved and strived to stand as a power again. The world assumed that Russia had gained its objectives, but things started changing drastically during the third tenure of Putin. The economy which aided Russia to rise was once again falling. The drastic economic conditions resulted in the domestic protests against Putin presidency in Russia. The outing was stuck between worse conditions. He wanted to keep his regime alive for the supremacy of Russia to gain power. At the same time, the violence and protests also needed to be silenced by using force and diplomacy approaches.
Socialist defines two events that shaped Putin’s alterations in the foreign policy to be the chief reasons. These major events are the annexation of Crimea and the military intervention in the Syrian war. Out of these two, the annexation of Crimea shook the Russian place in the region. Major forces stood against Russia in support of Ukraine, pouting Russia at the verge of crisis. The aggressive alterations Vladimir Putin put in the foreign policy of Russia came to light. The aggressive stance of Russia suspended the collaborations between NATO and Russia, and it also hindered the relations of the United States and Russia. The two major steps of Russia in Crimea and Syria have evolved drastic changes that point towards Putin’s aggressive alterations. Russia has always avoided military interventions in foreign countries except for the 2008 war against Georgia. Its sudden military actions in other countries shook NATO and western countries. Another action of Russia that points towards the aggressive foreign policy changes in the military standoff with the United States in the Baltic Sea. It happened “when a Russian SU-27 fighter jet performed an extremely dangerous barrel roll very close to the United States surveillance plane.” another incident also happened in the Baltic Sea when Russian fighter jets initiated the attacks on U.S. navy destroyer (Telegraph Reporters and Reuters, 2016). Several Russian submarines and aircraft near the European Union border have been observed and located; this highlights the aggressiveness of Putin towards western countries.
The drastic changes and alteration of Putin’s third tenure cannot be categorized in the “international reorientation”. All the changes Putin has evolved till now in the foreign policy of Russia is t active in its goals of making Russia a superpower his post-colonial thought and approaches are leading his methods (Identity, Morozov & UK, 2021). The changes that occurred in the overall Putin tenure are categorized as program changes. Putin has adopted distinct changes in Russian foreign policy. He wants Russia to be a great power, and also, he wants to continue and secure his regime. Russia main objective has always been the same that is to chive power and becomes a superpower, but now its methods for achieving the goal are changed. Initially, Russia implied easygoing and subtle methods, but now it has become aggressive in its approaches.
The annexation of Crimea by Russia came up to be a sudden shock and news for the west. Daniel Triesman (2016) has analyzed the action of Russia and gave potential explanations about the reasons behind them. The annexation of Crimea left the world stuttered about Putin’s aims and objectives for the ways he is preaching his goals and objectives. Triesman provided three theories to explain the current actions of Russia that are Russia felt threatened about the expansion of NATO and feared that upon the joining of Ukraine in NATO, NATO will become more powerful and will surround Russia. This will give the power of pressurizing Russia to NATO. If NATO controls the neighboring sides of Russia, it can easily influence the economy and development of Russia. As a result, Russia intervened in Ukraine, joining NATO and pulled up the annexation of crime to mark its dominance in Ukraine.
Another theory or explanation about the annexation of Crimea is suggested. The annexation of Crimea is the initial step of Putin’s long-planned achievement of power in the region. Putin aims to acquire the old condition of borders similar to the Soviet era. The third explanation suggested by Triesman claims that the annexation of Crimea is a countermeasure of Russia towards the fall of the Yanukovych government. This statement or explanation is again related to the first explanation that Russia feared the expansion of NATO (Identity, Morozov & UK, 2021). The expansion of NATO near the border of Russia can make Russia lose its influence on bases located on the black sea. Russian administrations have identified the expansion of NATO as a serious threat to their influence and image in the region. It is believed that the fall of the Soviet Union is regarded as “the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the twentieth century”. Putin has not accepted the collapse of the Soviet Union and the after conditions of the country (PUTIN, 2005). Fyodor Lukyanov (2016) has voiced his opinion and acclaims that the annexation of Crimea was Russia’s response or countermeasure against the expansion of NATO. The illegal invasion of Russia in Ukraine out Russia ion the dominated side of Ukraine; thus, it will aid Russia to prevent Ukraine from joining the NATO and European Union. The action of Russia in Crimea is considered as a warning from Russia to the west to stay away from its region and influential areas (Identity, Morozov & UK, 2021). The decrease in dominance and influence of Russia can benefit the west; therefore, Russia has taken drastic measures to maintain its influence and dominance in its region to make the west remember its post-soviet power and influence. But the actions of Russia cost it also. The annexation of Crimea has resulted in an economic crisis in the country because the west strives to isolate Russia from the economy. It is also claimed that the action in the Crimea was an initial step to gain the past conditions back because in the history Crimea actually belonged t Russia later it had become part of Ukraine, so it is also claimed that Russia took back what actually belonged to itself to active the past situation against. This way, Russia is reliving the past era and aims to get back to it soon and again become the influential superpower. Triesman features that NATO had clarified that it had no goal of conceding Ukraine, basically not temporarily, in light of the fact that it considered it too temperamental to ever be a part and on the grounds that the move would have made superfluous strains with Russia. Putin may have questioned NATO’s trustworthiness; however, he made no notice of his interests in an expected increase of Ukraine to NATO in any of his discussions with Western pioneers.
Until now, Putin has showcased himself and his regime as imperialist. The act of annexation of crime is considered to be his first act of expansion. The country is putting immense pressure t the government of Ukraine to remain under its spell and dominance. Due to the annexation and invasion, the identity of Crimea is undecided, some consider it to be a community with greater autonomy in Ukraine, and some consider it to be part of Russia. It is claimed that the planning about annexation and expansion had allegedly been done during 2008 when Ukraine first showed interest in joining NATO. Richard Sawka (2015) argues that Russia is not an imperialist power, but a conservative status quo power still follows and values pre liberal European customs and beliefs. He argues that Russia is a conservative [power that aims to conquer its neighboring borders to remake the Soviet Union territory. Russia is also acquiring to be neo-revisionist power because it aims to change the settings of the international order that are coming in its way of achieving its goal. According to the post colonialism approach, it is claimed that Russia is not satisfied with the international distribution of power because, according to Russia, a despairing amount of power is concentrated in the west, and the international order is entirely influenced and dominated by the west. Russia does not aim to change the entire international order, but it only wants to change the things that are coming in hits way of accruing power. Russia wants to protect its sovereignty and strengthen its power as a superpower in the world. Russia wants to be on the list of superpowers of the world by which the world order is influenced.
Triesman concluded threat the biggest reason behind the annexation of Crimea has to be the threat that arose after the fall of Yanukovych. Russia feared that kievs new government would expel the “Russians black sea fleet” from the Crimean bases. The base of Sevastopol is very important for Russia to secure its borders (Triesman, 2016). Several theorists argue that the Crimea invasion cannot be defined by the sudden need of Russia to secure its borders. Triesman argues that Crimea is an important strategies asset for Russia. Thus, its loss can make Russia take sudden and drastic measures. All the explanation that defines the act of annexation of Crimea gets together at a point that Russia cannot accept the expansion of NATO in the Ukrainian territory it can lessen the influence of Russia and can cause several problems for the country.
Apart from all the explanations and reasoning’s, Triesman also provided another reason that the sudden annexation of Crimea is related to the domestic restructuring of Russia. It is accepted that the fear of losing the Sevastopol base and influence in Ukraine made Russia took drastic measures about invasion. Another reason is domestic structuring. Hence Russia took Crimea back in order to achieve the old structure and its influence on Ukraine. If Ukraine had joined NATO, Russia would have lost control in all cymae that is unacceptable for Russia. In the case of Ukraine being a NATO member, Russia cannot invade nor do military intervention because it would not risk having military conflict with NATO. Despite having direct conflict, Russia is busy engaging NATO in the cold war by continuously provoking it. The actions of Russia are stimulating NATO, the actions like Crimea annexation, Syrian military intervention, attack on U.S. warship, infiltration of the submarine and aircraft’s barrel meant to warn and provoke NATO. But despite these small actions, Russia cannot directly invite NATO for military war because it would ruin its infrastructure and possible identity. The acts of Russia have made western leaders aggressive, and they have deployed four battalions based on 4000 troops to Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia (Barnes &Troianovski, 2016). The claimed reason for the deployment is suggested to be political, but major theorists and socialists are claiming it to be a countermeasure against Russian provoking and annexation.
Apart from Russia annexation of Crimea, the Syrian military intervention is also a sudden act of Russia to shock the west. The Russian military operation in Syria was initiated in September 2015. The Russian military deployed airstrikes in the Islamic state in the “anti-Assad” rebels. It is argued that the west supports the anti-Assad rebels, and Russian intervention against them is an act that is against the west. This act of Russia has been sudden and unexpected by the western countries. Similar to the case of Crimea, many socialists have also provided potential explanations for the act of Putin and the reasons behind that. The Russian military intervention aimed to stop the protests against Syrian President Basher al-Assad. It was estimated that rebels were trying to overthrow the president of Syria. The actual reason behind the protection of the Syrian president by Russia is unknown to the world, and many explanations or potential benefits are proposed to understand the action of Russia. Javier Morales (2015) have proposed three explanations or benefits that Russia must have achieved or aim to achieve by helping Syria. These benefits or aims can help Russia in reaffirmation of its superpower and will play a great role in influencing its dominance over other countries. This act of Russia can also help it in protecting itself from terrorism. Thirdly this act can also aid Russia in “avoiding the consolidation of the principle of “responsibility to protect” as a norm of international law”. Russia is keenly acting towards the achievement of its core goal or aim. Apart from these explanations, another most potential reason for Russian intervention in Syria is the protection of the port of Tartus in Syria. Although this reason is not a major reason, it must have a hand in the overall decision of Russia to intervene in Syria. Another effective route for Russia is the Turkish straits which are connected to Syria. The Turkish straits are important because they are the only ways that allow Russian vessels in the Mediterranean. The closure of these straits would complicate things for Russia in terms of trade and other aspects. Triesman calls attention to the fact that Turkey’s Russian response to such a move could be “incensed and potentially unbalanced”. He underlines the way that both Putin and Turkish President Erdogan need to look solid in the international field to guarantee the help of their homegrown crowds. This may prompt risky accelerations of the strains between them since the two can’t stand to look frail: in the two cases, homegrown restructurings are rousing a specific position in international strategy. Putin has drastically changed his methods and ways to achieve his goal and have altered a greater section of Russian foreign policy.
The conclusion is the last part of the dissertation. It includes a summarized view of the whole detraction to give in a summed-up glance of the dissertation. Apart from the summary, the conclusion also contains limitations of the study and recommendations.
The current dissertation is a qualitative analysis of the current relationship between NATO and Russia. The relations between these two bodies have always been stirring. The exploration intends to basically examine and study the development and history of NATO and Russia dependent on a few contentions and their determinants. The exploration additionally purposes to break down and concentrate on the post expansionism character and the power of personality in the virus battle between Russia and NATO. The fall of the Soviet Union led Russia in profound disheartening and void. It set up the political and financial downturns. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the significant emergency of the 1993 constitution, Russia was led by Vladimir Putin in 1999. Vladimir got the charge of the nation and stifled the Chechen insurrection. As a result, the oil costs raised, unfamiliar ventures expanded, which in the long run succeeded the economy of Russia. Putin drastically upgraded Russia’s quality and standard of life and denoted the personality in worldwide governmental issues. Since 1999, at regular intervals official political decision Putin win the official seat. In 200, Putin was chosen as leader because of the country strategy to end a similar individual to become president for the third time in succession. However, Putin was back in administration in the 2012 races. The Soviet Union was flourishing prosperously until the demise of Vladimir Lenin; Josef Stalin assumed liability for the framework. Stalin changed the Soviet Union from agrarian culture to solid military power (Strayer, 2016). He executed merciless approaches, which led to the demise of his own residents. Stalin acquainted a long-term plan with inducing the financial and formative development in the Soviet Union. The arrangement zeroed in on improving and expanding the farming and mechanical frameworks and upgrading the tactical supplies and innovation. In 1949, United States (U.S.), Canada, and their European partners set up or fostered a coalition which was named NATO (North Atlantic arrangement association). The NATO collusion was the counter proportion of the western coalition and was the political portrayal of power against the USSR and its partners. The advancement of NATO blended the terrible relations in light of the need for power. The post expansionism personality is connected with the last character of the nation, individuals or society. By definition, it is characterized as the hypothesis which is moiré worried about the outlines and examination of political, authentic, financial, and social effects of European pilgrim rules. The post pioneer hypothesis is understood through various perspectives and intercessions bit every one of the mediations and angles have a comparable key idea. The hypothesis proposes that “the world that we have possessed is difficult to appreciate without examining and investigating history in dominion and pioneer time”. The hypothesis likewise guarantees that it is difficult to concentrate on European history, European social and European writing without the effect of European provincial time decisions and experiences. In the review, neither of European history nor to be more exact in the investigation of Russian history pilgrim time plays an extraordinary part. Russia partners itself with the brilliant frontier time of the Soviet Union. One mediation of hypothesis proposes that the colonized society has failed to remember the focal point of worldwide advancement. The world post in the post pioneer hypothesis infers that expansionism has finished, yet numerous researchers and communists or scientists suggest that imperialism has never finished. Rather, the post frontier hypothesis is associated with or worried about the cutting-edge provincial specialists and structures. Communist characterizes two occasions that molded Putin’s changes in the international strategy to be the main reasons. These significant occasions are the addition of Crimea and the tactical mediation of the Syrian conflict. Out of these two, the extension of Crimea shook the Russian spot in the locale; significant powers remained against Russia on the side of Ukraine, sulking Russia at the skirt of emergency. The forceful modifications Vladimir Putin put in the international strategy of Russia came to light. The forceful position of Russia suspended the coordinated efforts among NATO and Russia, and it additionally obstructed the relations of the United States and Russia. The two significant stages of Russia in Crimea and Syria have intense advanced changes which focus on Putin forceful adjustments. Russia has consistently kept away from military mediations in unfamiliar nations, except the 2008 conflict against Georgia. Its unexpected military activities in different nations shook NATO and western nations. One more activity of Russia that point towards the forceful changes in international strategy is the tactical deadlock with the United States in the Baltic Sea. Putin has radically changed his techniques and approaches to accomplish his objective and have modified a more prominent segment of Russian international strategy. After the commencement of emergency in February, the leader of Ukraine, Yanukovych, was tossed out of its administration and powers by hostile to legislative dissidents. As a countermeasure, Russia strived to recapture its effect on Crimea and added Crimea in March of 2014 (Bebier, 2015). The activities of Russia were in resistance with the NATO board collusion, which made NATO break down NATO Russia gathering and participation (Smith, 2008). The proportion of Russia and Ukraine military incited rebels as a result of the dissidents holding onto the domain in eastern Ukraine and killing the Malaysian carrier trip on July seventeenth. The Malaysian flight episode caused the passing of more than 298 individuals. In further acts Russian armed force additionally held onto some piece of Ukraine to show its power. The Russian intrusion of Crimea is the illicit and most antagonistic attack which has gone against every other power. The communists have advanced two speculations to dissect the Russian attack on Crimea. Hypothesis one recommends that the Russian president Vladimir Putin attempt to topple the misfortunes of agitators since he needs something from Ukraine. Putin has been backing the revolutionaries for quite a long time and is starting brutality in eastern Ukraine. It is speculated that Putin is doing this to keep up with little emergency in general Ukraine as he did in Georgia and Moldova additionally to force its power on the country. The impact of advertisement intrusion can help Russia in keeping up with the predominance over Ukraine. NATO recommends that Putin is after some prompt vital objectives that he is attempting to accomplish and will possibly stop when he accomplishes his objective of power. The subsequent hypothesis recommends that Putin is constrained into this attack because of his manner of speaking publicly. It is proposed that Putin’s making the misery in the area to counter the affordable issues of Russia; he is attempting to shape the consideration of the resident and the dissenting and nongovernmental gatherings of Russia.
The current subject is very wide, the research initially aimed to analyze and study the relation between Russia and NATO. To analyze their relation the research has comprehensively analyses and studied the historical background of Russia and NATO. The research has also included the analysis and relevance of post colonialism identity of Russia. The research has gathered secondary information through reliable sources, the secondary sources have some limitations and the secondary researches also have those limitation. It is recommended for the future studies to imply the study on the primary research through newspapers, official documents and other official recorded speeches of the officials. The primary study can give a generalized opinion of the subject. In secondary study it is possible to get one sided view of the story. And in international relations both the subject has their own story therefore it is difficult to keep one on right band one on wronged side.
Several dissertations have a limitation. The current dissertation is qualitative research and has an interpretivism philosophy. It gathers information through secondary sources and provides a comprehensive explanation of the current situation of NATO and Russia. The analysis and research in international relations are very complicated because of the distinct behavior of countries and numerous theories that define the behavior. The research also strived to provide relative theories and explanations to better understand the subject and the research. The relationship between Russia and NATO is always complicated; hence its study and analysis are also somewhat complicated.
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