Grey literature refers to a broad spectrum of content that is created outside of conventional publishing and distribution routes and that is frequently underrepresented in indexing databases.
Frequently Asked Questions : Academic Research
To find Grey Literature in research, explore repositories, thesis databases, government websites, and non-profit organizations’ reports. Use specific keywords and Google Scholar. Network with experts and attend conferences for unpublished studies.
Descriptive research, Analytical research, Fundamental research, Applied research, Quantitative research, Qualitative research, Conceptual research and Empirical research.
There is no one research method that is universally considered the most powerful, as each method carries its own strengths and weaknesses depending on the research question and context.
Qualitative methods such as interviews and observations may provide rich, detailed insights, while quantitative methods such as experiments and surveys can provide statistical rigour and generalisability.
Define your research question. Conduct a literature review. Consider the data type. Consider available resources, take expert advice and perform pilot testing
Research methodology means the systematic and scientific approach used to collect and analyse data with the purpose of answering a research question or testing a hypothesis.
An academic researcher is a professional who conducts systematic and rigorous investigations to discover new knowledge or insights in their field of study.
They work in academic institutions such as universities, research institutes, and think tanks and publish their findings in scholarly publications such as academic journals, books, and conference proceedings.
What does peer-reviewed mean in academic research? Peer-reviewed means that a scholarly work, such as an academic article, has been evaluated and scrutinised by other experts in the same field before it is published.
This process ensures the quality, validity, and reliability of the research. Peer review is a crucial aspect of academic publishing and promotes high standards of scholarship.
To begin with, have a clear objective for your research, and explain why they are taking place and how they will affect your work. Structure the limitations and draft a plan to tackle them accordingly.
The main purpose of these research limitations is to specify your research goal. Formulate your limitations before initiating the project for convenience.
For setting limitations for your work, the researcher must have a clear objective in his mins. Formulation of objectives is important in this regard, and that will help you set the study’s limitations.
There are multiple types of limitations in academic research, but the most prominent ones are sample limitations, data limitations, time and resources, and methodological limitations.
Developing a PhD research topic involves several steps, including identifying a research problem or gap in the literature, reviewing existing research, and refining the research question.
To begin, consider your personal interests and expertise to identify a broad area of study. Next, read extensively and critically analyze existing literature to identify gaps in knowledge or areas for further exploration.
Refine your research question to ensure that it is specific, feasible, and contributes to the existing body of knowledge. Consult with your academic supervisor throughout the process to ensure that your research aligns with the department’s research priorities and meets the requirements for a PhD project.
Start with a search engine like Google. Use specific keywords and phrases to narrow down results and evaluate the credibility and relevance of sources. Utilize academic databases and online libraries for scholarly articles and publications. Always fact-check information and cross-reference multiple sources to ensure accuracy.
To narrow down a research topic: Begin by reviewing the literature and identifying a specific research question or problem. Consider the scope of the study and potential research methods. Refine the topic by focusing on specific variables or factors and consulting with a supervisor or research team for feedback.
To decide on a research topic: Consider your research interests, current trends in your field, and the scope of your project. Identify a research problem or question, review the relevant literature, and consult with peers or a supervisor for feedback. Ensure the topic aligns with your research goals and objectives.
Developing a Ph.D. research topic involves several steps, including identifying a research problem or gap in the literature, reviewing existing research, and refining the research question.
To begin, consider your interests and expertise to identify a broad study area. Next, read extensively and critically analyze existing literature to identify gaps in knowledge or areas for further exploration.
Refine your research question to ensure that it is specific, feasible, and contributes to the existing body of knowledge.
Consult with your academic supervisor throughout the process to ensure that your research aligns with the department’s research priorities and meets the requirements for a PhD project.
To find interesting and researchable project topics: Identify areas that interest you and align with your field of study. Conduct a literature review to identify gaps in knowledge or areas that require further investigation.
Consider the potential impact and feasibility of your proposed topic. Brainstorm ideas with colleagues and mentors. Attend conferences and seminars to keep up with current research trends. Refine your topic to make it specific and manageable.
Any study whose findings are solely inferred from actual, verifiable empirical evidence is said to be doing empirical research. Both quantitative and qualitative market research techniques can be used to collect this empirical information.
For instance, a study is being done to see if listening to upbeat music while working might foster creativity.
On a group of listeners exposed to upbeat music and another group who are not listening to any music at all, an experiment is done utilizing a music website survey, and the subjects are then monitored. The outcomes of such a study will provide empirical proof of whether or not it fosters creativity.
Before reading the rest of your analysis of the findings, you usually start the discussion section of your paper by outlining the limitations of your study so that the reader is aware of them.
Alternatively, you might outline the limitations at the end of the discussion section to acknowledge the need for more research.
Unless a restriction is specifically related to a topic discussed in that area of the article, statements concerning a study’s limits should not be buried in the body [middle] of the discussion. But, if that’s the case, the restriction has to be reiterated at the end of the section.
In research, the margin of error is a statistical tool used to show how much sampling error is present in a survey or other kind of study.
To put it another way, it means how much a sample’s results may differ from those of the entire population when polled.
The margin of error is presented as a plus or minus percentage based on the sample size, confidence level, and response variation within the sample.
After identifying and collecting the data, select coding categories to code the data you have collected. When you are done coding, carefully the reliability and validity of the content you have done to analyse the results and present them in your findings.
Content analysis can be both qualitative and quantitative. You need classify or “code” words, ideas, and concepts within the texts in both categories before analysing the outcomes.
Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach to combine data from several different research to get one or more conclusions.
No, they are not. A systematic review complies with all the empirical research that is readily available to find answers to the research questions, while a meta-analysis is a statistical approach for assessing and integrating the data from several related research.
For a systematic review, you must search at least three databases; ideally, one huge database and two subject-specific ones. This technique applies to all forms of systematic reviews.
A systematic review can adopt either qualitative, quantitative or a combination of the two methodologies. The approach employed depends on the research question and the scope of the research.
No, there is a fine line between a scoping review and a systematic review. A scoping review will have a wider “scope” than a typical systematic review with correspondingly more expansive inclusion criteria.
A systematic review is a scholarly synthesis of the data on a well-described subject using analytical techniques to locate, describe, and rate relevant research. A systematic review takes data from previously published research on the subject, analyses and interprets it, and then discusses, summarises, and draws a detailed conclusion.
In mixed-method research, both quantitative and qualitative data are typically collected, and individually examined, and the conclusions are then combined. This strategy can give a more thorough knowledge of a study topic than either approach alone, as it allows researchers to investigate complicated situations from several angles.
There are various crucial phases that make up the research process. These phases are normally followed in sequential order.
- Identify the Research Problem
- Do a Literature Review
- Create a Research DesignCollect Data
- Data Analysis
- Draw Conclusions
- Convey Findings
Depending on the nature of the research topic and the type of data being gathered, data can be measured in research using a number of methodologies and procedures.
- Secondary Data Analysis
- Psychometric Scales
The method of measuring the data must be chosen depending on the study objective, the type of data being gathered, and the research strategy.
Research ethics are essential for ethically and socially appropriate investigations. Researchers must consider the impacts on participants, surroundings, and society.
Adhering to values defending human, animal, and environmental rights is necessary. Not following ethical guidelines can harm participants, reputations, public trust, legal, financial situations, and scientific credibility. Ethical research ensures human rights and societal well-being.
Exploratory research is a form of research strategy that is used to develop concepts for more investigation or to develop a preliminary knowledge of a phenomena. Exploratory research’s major goal is to investigate a research problem in advance and to offer insights into the nature and extent of the issue.
It is frequently done when there is little or no information available or when the research problem is uncertain. Identifying research topics or hypotheses, exploring novel or emerging occurrences, and gaining a comprehensive grasp of a certain subject are further uses for it.
The goal of ethnographic research is to get a thorough knowledge of a group of people’s culture, habits, beliefs, and social interactions by observing and studying them in their natural context.
Sociology, anthropology, and other social sciences frequently utilise ethnography to examine the complexity of human experience and behaviour.
In order to get a comprehensive grasp of the social norms, behaviours, and beliefs of the society being researched, ethnographic research often entails extensive periods of fieldwork.
To gather information, ethnographers frequently combine observation, involvement, interviews, and document analysis.
In research, sampling is the process of choosing a portion of a larger population that is of interest to participate in a study.
The goal of sampling is to collect data from a representative sample of the population so that generalizations about the complete population may be made.
Sampling plays a crucial role in the research process since it helps to assure the validity and generalizability of the study’s findings.
The study results could not be reliable or relevant to the general population if a sample is not representative of the community.
A research paper’s critique entails a critical assessment of the study techniques, findings, and conclusions made in the article.
- Read the article thoroughly.
- Evaluate the research question.
- Analyze the methodological approach.
- Examine the outcomes.
- Analyze the findings.
- Consider the implications.
Keep in mind to criticize constructively and provide ideas for advancement.
If you are presenting quantitative results:
- Structure the findings around your research questions or hypothesis.
- Establish relationships, tendencies and variances.
- All research questions must be addressed.
If you are presenting qualitative results:
- A notable issue when reporting qualitative results is that not all your findings will directly relate to the research questions.
- Report the most critical themes or trends.
- Highlight patterns, responses and results that directly address one of your research questions.
The following advice can help you create strong plots:
- Choose the correct kind of storyline
- Simple is best
- Use colour wisely
- Identify your axes and Set the scene.
- Use the right software
- Edit and improve
Experimental research is the act of testing a defined set of variables for tracing cause-and-effect relationships. Experimental research involves dependent and independent variables and follows a strict scientific research design.
A research objective is a description of what you are aiming to accomplish through your research. You can have one or several research objectives in a single academic subject.
Research objectives enable the researchers to keep their research work focused through the specific approach. They are generally listed in the introduction section.
When the researcher encourages or prefers one result or outcome over others, the resulting sampling error or testing error is called research bias.
Research bias can occur at any project stage, including background research, research design, data collection, and data analysis and interpretation.
There is no single answer to the question, “how many participants for qualitative research”. However, in academic circles, your research work will be considered more authentic and reliable if your qualitative study involves 10 participants and more.
The exact number of participants depends on your academic level and the complexity of the chosen research area.
A research paradigm is a philosophical framework that lays the foundation of your research. It involves a pattern of ideologies, beliefs and approaches the researcher employs for evaluating the theories and practices of your research area.
A research paradigm consists of ontology, epistemology, and research methodology.
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Research rationale justifies why there is a need to conduct a study on any given topic. Depending on the country of your study, the rationale can also be called a thesis statement or a justification of the research.
Research rationale must be produced before you can start work on the individual chapters of the thesis paper or research paper.
Background research is finding literature and information already available on your chosen topic. Background research generally starts before you start working on your project and, in some cases, it may start even before a topic has been selected.
Academics and research experts recommend never to generalize your qualitative research results because the data is not random and lacks statistics. Qualitative research aims to provide a rich and contextualized understanding of the issue in consideration.
Academic writing requires advanced research skills. You can improve your research skills by following,
- Create a research plan to strategize before commencing the study.
- Utilize online libraries and databases for data retrieval.
- Gather ideas, theories, and literature on the subject.
- Validate credibility by relying on authentic academic sources.
- Maintain systematic information recording.
- Seek guidance from research assistants and academics to refine research abilities.
When presenting quantitative results
- Structure findings around research questions or hypotheses.
- Address each question individually.
- Establish relationships, tendencies, and variances.
For qualitative results
- Report critical themes.
- Trends, patterns, and responses.
- Relationships directly address research questions or hypotheses.